Introduction to IP Addressing

IP Address

Network portion is also known as network prefex. Network portion identifies group of network devices, while the host portion identifies and individual device on that specific network.

In real life our zip code is like our network prefex and one specific home address is host portion of it.

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IP Address Construction

ip address is written in the form of four decimal numbers.

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Classless Addressing

Now a days we only use classless addressing for ipv4.

The subnet mask is hack added on to ip address in 1994 to 1995,

Subnet mask is the number which determines which part of the ip is netwrok portion and which is host portion.

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Classful Addressing

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Class D: Address are used for multicasting

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Address Types

Network Address

  • Identifier for a group of devices

  • “Network Prefix”

  • All binary 0’s in the HOST portion of the address

Broadcast Address

  • Identifier for all devices on a network
  • All the 1’s in the HOST portion of the address

Host Address

  • Identifies unique device on a network
  • Anything EXCEPT all binary 0’s or 1’s.

Examples

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Private and Public Addresses

Private address are used in homes and businesses to communicate locally/privatly, to go out to public network/internet we use Network Address Translation (NAT), which is second hack that make subnet mask work.

Private IP Address Ranges

BeginEnd
10.0.0.010.255.255.255
172.16.0.0172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0192.168.255.255

All the other ip addresses other than private are almost public ip addresses.

Loopback address

127.0.0.1

we ping this loop back address to see if ip stack on that workstation is intact and working.

IP Address Configuration

Example 1

Both computers are on the same network so ping will work.

Computer AComputer BAddress Details
192.168.10.10192.168.10.100ip address
255.255.255.0255.255.255.0Subnet mask

Example 2

Both computers are on the differenct network so ping will not work. as we know need router to communicate with other networks.

Computer AComputer BAddress Details
192.168.11.10192.168.10.100ip address
255.255.255.0255.255.255.0Subnet mask

Example 3

In this example the network address of both computer A and Computer B is same when we see in binary form according to the subnet mask that decide which range of bits are network address and which are host

Computer AComputer BAddress Details
192.168.11.0192.168.10.100ip address
255.255.254.0255.255.254.0Subnet mask
1100 0000 1010 1000 0000 1011 0000 00001100 0000 1010 1000 0000 1010 0110 0100ip address in binary
1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110 0000 00001111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110 0000 0000subnet mask in binary

Computer A

1100 0000 1010 1000 0000 1011 0000 0000

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110 0000 0000

Computer B

1100 0000 1010 1000 0000 1010 0110 0100

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110 0000 0000

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